- 1) Chemical Action
- 2) Heat (Temperature)
- 3) Agitation (mechanical Action)
- 4) Time
Chemical Action: Chemical action is provided by the chemicals used in the process of cleaning. The chemical action involves the inter-relation of the detergent with the soils and the surface to be cleaned. Application of this agent, called a pre-conditioner, to the carpet fibres is the first step in loosing or suspending soils which are present on the fibres.
Heat: Heat may be the most controversial of these fundamentals. According to well recognised scientific research and theory, the more heat you have, the greater the cleaning power. The increase of water from 65°C to 100°C yields a considerable and steady increase of energy. This means the potential of the cleaning power will significantly increase the closer you can get to 100°C.
Agitation: Agitation or Mechanical Action is also a very important fundamental of soil suspension. It can be accomplished with a brush or with a rotary or cylindrical shampoo machine. The proper agitation will assist in achieving the following benefits:
- Aid in the distribution of preconditioning agents/chemicals
- Aids in penetration of chemicals into the soil that we are attempting to remove
- Assist in soil suspension and dislodgment
- Lift and separate matted and crushed face fibres
Time: Time is an important factor. Time isseveral seconds, minutes or hours required for the cleaning agents to provide theoptimum efficient interaction with the fibre and perform their function of releasing the soils from the fibres. This contact time is referred to as dwell time and generally considered to be between 5-15 minutes.
Any time one of the fundamentals is decreased the other fundamentals should be increased to keep the overall cleaning efficiency at the optimum level.